Several major newspapers, CNN, and other outlets have recently published stories on the emergence of remotely piloted aircraft. One easy solution to the problem of pilot sabotage is to get rid of the pilot altogether. After all, planes can pretty much fly themselves already, right? For more on this, please see my recent op-ed piece published in the New York Times.
Social importance Has existing or potential value to the local, national or international community owing to its heritage, historical, cultural, traditional, aesthetic, educational or recreational qualities.
Scientific importance Value for research and monitoring International or national significance Has the potential to be listed on the World or National Heritage list or declared as a Biosphere reserve, of other national or international significance, or subject of a national or international conservation agreement.
As noted above for many of the objectives one might set for area and time restrictions, biological and fishery data will be adequate. For some forms, particularly of permanent area closures in adult fish habitat, the information for basing a decision about a closed area will, in many cases, be poor or unavailable.
Whatever, the available data, a manager must seek to learn from past experience in other systems and, if possible, from scientifically defensible quantitative models that predict the likely consequences of different management scenarios Chapter 5. Questions that it may be important to ask include the following.
In the limit, of course, where the vast majority of an area is closed to fishing, the answer has to be yes unless the small piece that was left open happened to be the only spawning ground for the resource. A more appropriate question, however, is under what range of circumstances is area or time restriction likely to succeed in this objective and by what mechanisms?
This is a complex and difficult question, for which no simple answers can be offered, especially for permanent area closures in adult fish habitat. It is perhaps notable, for example, that the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD recently reviewed the benefits to fisheries of 52 restricted areas and found that in 32 cases stocks declined or showed major oscillations and in only 16 had stocks increased or remained the same Anon Importantly, in all of the successful cases limited entry or TACs were also used along with other input controls such as size or sex selectivity so the contribution made by the area closures alone to the outcome was impossible to determine.
Despite this somewhat pessimistic OECD analysis, however, there is, good evidence that for many purposes area and time restrictions have been highly successful. Indeed, as noted above, there is also growing evidence for successful MPAs in adult habitat for fish stock conservation in coral reef and other tropical systems, where the biology of the fish is favourable and management is through effort control.
One might expect similar positive benefits in temperate systems where the fish species of interest have similar life history characteristics to their tropical counterparts.
At present, however, the case for permanent closures is rather less convincing for temperate continental shelf fisheries, although seasonal closures such as the Plaice Box described above certainly appear to confer benefits.
As noted earlier, for fishery management in temperate demersal systems, area closures in adult habitat may need to be especially and perhaps unfeasibly large to be effective. This may be especially true in fisheries that are managed through controls on total allowable catch, where effort may be diverted to other areas and negate potential benefits Horwood, However, seasonal or other closures to protect juveniles certainly appear to be effective.
These authors found that small reserves increased the total catch in adjacent areas, but a larger park did not. This effect may be due to the lower ratio of edge to park area in a large reserve. Data or experiences for tropical demersal trawl fisheries appear to be lacking and there is little analysis available to guide decision-making for these circumstances.
For more general marine conservation, the concept of a park or reserve in a marine system is somewhat different to that which obtains on land. In terrestrial systems one generally thinks of a protected area as being separate from the rest of the system, with surrounding unprotected areas having little influence within the park.
In contrast, marine systems are usually extremely open with considerable exchange across the legislative boundaries defined by lines on a map. It follows that the minimum size required to meet the objectives for an MPA is often likely to be many times larger than that required for a terrestrial system.
In particular, there is general agreement that, in order to protect productive marine ecosystems and areas of high biodiversity, an MPA needs to encompass as many of the ecosystem components as possible and give full consideration to the many factors and influences affecting productivity and diversity.
Decisions about closed seasons will usually fall exclusively within the domain of the fisheries manager, with little need to involve agencies or interested parties other than those with a direct interest in fishing.
In contrast establishing permanent MPAs will almost certainly require inter-agency agreements and negotiations. An important goal for a fisheries manager will be to acquire the knowledge required to support the planning and management process.
Indeed the general principles outlined in Paragraph 6 of the Code of Conduct make a number of references to the importance of consultation and negotiation. In particular, the implementation of an MPA is more likely to be successful if: With regard to legislation, it is clearly the case that management success is more likely when the area under consideration for protection and preferably the adjacent land in coastal waters is under the same agency's jurisdiction.
In most cases, however, this is unlikely, and in cases where this situation does not obtain, it has been strongly argued that legislation and management arrangements should grow from existing institutions unless there is overwhelming public or political support for completely new administrative agencies.
Of course, the precise legislative environment in which an MPA is to be established will differ from country to country. Thus, no general guidance can be provided here beyond emphasising the value to a manager of being fully acquainted with the legislative issues for their own situation.
As with all fisheries management measures, the ease with which compliance can be monitored and enforced is likely to be a critically important determinant of feasibility.
Unfortunately, for area and time restrictions, there is no straightforward answer to how easy enforcement will be. An analysis by the OECD Anon,for example, showed that increased enforcement costs or problems were reported for six fisheries, while five fisheries reported no difficulties.
One could imagine a situation, for example, where a short fishing season for boats from a limited number of ports could easily be policed. In contrast, permanent closure of a large and remote area would be almost impossible to control without technological support such as satellite tracking of vessels, or air surveillance.Latest news, expert advice and information on money.
Pensions, property and more. J. Sainsbury Failed It System Essay Introduction In , British food retailer J Sainsbury had to write off $ million it had invested in an automated supply-chain management system after having poor results. Sainsbury’s is lagging behind its rivals in its sales revenue causing them to be making a loss after a period five years.
From Network News to the New Yorker, the Conversation Spins Out of Control UPDATE: March 30, NOT TO DETRACT FROM the raw horror of the Germanwings disaster, but the crash has spawned a sideshow of ill-informed and just plain aggravating conversations, across the whole spectrum of the media, that somebody needs to address.
JUNE KOREAN WAR JULY 25 JUNE 50th ANNIVERSARY YEARS 27 JULY IN MEMORIAM. Able Seaman J.D. MAWDSLEY 19 Royal Navy HMS Jamaica 08 July Risk is the possibility of losing something of value. Values (such as physical health, social status, emotional well-being, or financial wealth) can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen (planned or not planned).Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty.
Sainsbury's is the second largest chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom, with a % share of the supermarket sector.
Founded in , by John James Sainsbury with a shop in Drury Lane, London, the company became the largest retailer of groceries in , was an early adopter of self-service retailing in the United Kingdom, and had its heyday during the s.