Mesoamerican writing systems A stone slab with 3,year-old writing, the Cascajal Blockwas discovered in the Mexican state of Veracruz, and is an example of the oldest script in the Western Hemisphere, preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about BC. The earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BC, and writing was in continuous use until shortly after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century AD. Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs:
The epic took form in the 10th century and reached its final form by the 14th century; the number and type of tales have varied from one manuscript to another.
The popularity of the work may in part be due to greater popular knowledge of history and geography since it was written.
This meant that the plausibility of great marvels had to be set at a greater distance of time "long ago" and place "far away". This is a process that continues, and finally culminates in fantasy fiction having little connection, if any, to actual times and places.
A number of elements from Arabian mythology and Persian mythology are now common in modern fantasysuch as geniesbahamutsmagic carpetsmagic lamps, etc. Frank Baum proposed writing a modern fairy tale that banished stereotypical elements he felt the genie, dwarf and fairy were stereotypes to avoid.
Other Arabian Nights tales deal with lost ancient technologies, advanced ancient civilizations that went astray, and catastrophes which overwhelmed them. These works are said to have been inspired by several Moorish delegations from Morocco to Elizabethan England at the beginning of the 17th century.
Both of these narratives had protagonists Hayy in Philosophus Autodidactus and Kamil in Theologus Autodidactus who were autodidactic feral children living in seclusion on a desert islandboth being the earliest examples of a desert island story.
However, while Hayy lives alone with animals on the desert island for the rest of the story in Philosophus Autodidactus, the story of Kamil extends beyond the desert island setting in Theologus Autodidactus, developing into the earliest known coming of age plot and eventually becoming the first example of a science fiction novel.
Rather than giving supernatural or mythological explanations for these events, Ibn al-Nafis attempted to explain these plot elements using the scientific knowledge of biologyastronomycosmology and geology known in his time.
His main purpose behind this science fiction work was to explain Islamic religious teachings in terms of science and philosophy through the use of fiction.
These translations later inspired Daniel Defoe to write Robinson Crusoea candidate for the title of " first novel in English ". It is the longest epic poem ever written.
From Persian culture the book which would, eventually, become the most famous in the west is the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. Amir Arsalan was also a popular mythical Persian story, which has influenced some modern works of fantasy fiction, such as The Heroic Legend of Arslan.A review of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan risk drops from about 90% in the first six months of life, to about 25% by the age of five years, and to 10% by the age of 15 years.
It is unusual (2%- 5%) for adults who are infected the currently available literature will also help in reorganizing. On the occasion of World Hepatitis Day , the Canadian Coalition of Organizations Responding to Hepatitis B and C releases a report card that, using the six Canadian “Asks,” assesses provincial, territorial and federal government responses to hepatitis C.
Transcript of The Invention of Writing and the Earliest Literatures. Global Great Thinkers: Group Presentation Jeang Yen Han Kitu Sharma The Invention of Writing and the Earliest Literatures Heavily depend on the natural resources Inherent injustice - take slaves completely for granted Believed in many.
Aug 17, · The Invention of Writing and the Earliest Literatures We tend to think of 'literature' as written; however, in the earliest, preliterate societies, cultures recorded history through an oral tradition: one in which elders .
The FDA licensed Merck’s Recombivax HB. This hepatitis B vaccine was the first human vaccine produced by recombinant DNA methods. A challenge in creating the vaccine involved avoiding the use of human blood products, as did Maurice Hilleman’s first hepatitis B vaccine.
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